Giorgio Belluomini, Jeffrey L. Bada; Isoleucine epimerization ages of the dwarf elephants of Sicily. Geology ; 13 (7): 451–452. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1985)13<451:IEAOTD>2.0.CO;2
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The isoleucine epimerization reaction has been used to date tooth enamel from dwarf elephants collected from the Sicilian caves of Spinagallo and Puntali. Elephant teeth from the Isernia la Pineta deposit in central Italy, dated at ∼700 ka by potassium-argon (K-Ar) and paleomagnetics, were used for calibration of the isoleucine epimerization rate. The ages determined for the dwarf elephants found at the Spinagallo Cave are considerably older than the more robust dwarf species found at the Puntali Cave. These dates suggest that more than one invasion of continental elephants have taken place on Sicily. The subsequent isolation of the continental species has apparently produced varying stages of dwarfism.