The Precambrian-Cambrian boundary problem is studied in an areno-argillaceous sequence in the Kashmir and Spiti Valley, Northwest Himalaya, India. In Kashmir, a rich and diversified microbiota-cryptarchs and algae of the Late Precambrian, and low Lower Cambrian trace fossils are recorded. In the Spiti Valley, the yield of microbiota is poor and the trace fossils are late Lower Cambrian.--Modified journal abstract.