"Alternation of morphogenetic systems conditioned by wide swinging of climatic belts equatorward and poleward has been used to explain otherwise puzzling relict forms in many regions. A characteristic finely dissected landscape relief prevalent in some middle-latitude regions is in strong contrast with smoothed, coarse-textured, whalebacked, relatively featureless relief in others, notably western Europe, which are now in the humid-temperature zone. This latter is believed to be relict from the periglacial regimes of Pleistocene ice ages. In New Zealand where the former landscape type is typically developed, there has also been quite strong 'periglaciation', and in Europe running-water erosion cannot but have operated to some extent in interglacial ages. It appears that the periglacial smoothing has been pushed to the extreme limit in Europe but that its effects have been neutralized in New Zealand by the vigour of dissection in the alternating warm ages."