"The fauna, mainly small gastropods and lamellibranchs, of the sands and silts (the Hammar formation) occurring near the surface in various borings in the Basrah area is shown to be marine and of Recent age. It is suggested that the Persian Gulf sea in Recent times extended a considerable distance north of its present shoreline; its silting-up is considered to be due to cessation of subsidence. The subsequent geography of the area, with its fluviatile, lacustrine, and estuarine sediments, is possibly due to localized subsidence and elevation."

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