In the Callander area, Perthshire, southeast Scotland, observations on graded and current bedding show that the Leny limestone (Cambrian) is intercalated in an inverted succession of Leny grit and is not a part of a syncline as previously postulated. Stratigraphic and structural relationships show that the Aberfoyle anticline is not a normal anticline; it closes downwards and is a synform.

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