"A basement complex graphite-limestone on Changalumi hill, along the eastern escarpment of the southern Nyasaland rift-valley, exhibits various phenomena including contorted exotic boulders, migration of graphite, and injection of discordant veins into adjacent gneiss. These features indicate that the limestone has burst through its anticlinal roof during strong isoclinal folding at a relatively low temperature, engulfing and distorting a minor synclinal infold. The age of the break-through is proved to be pre-Chilwa series and pre-Rifting."

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