The recently developed fluorite (U–Th)/He thermochronology (FHe) technique was applied to date fluorite mineralization and elucidate the exhumation history of the Mazandaran Fluorspar Mining District (MFMD) located in the east Central Alborz Mountains, Iran. A total of 32 fluorite single-crystal samples from four Middle Triassic carbonate-hosted fluorite deposits were dated. The presented FHe ages range between c. 85 Ma (age of fluorite mineralization) and c. 20 Ma (erosional cooling during the exhumation of the Alborz Mountains). The Late Cretaceous FHe ages (i.e. 84.5 ± 3.6, 78.8 ± 4.4 and 72.3 ± 3.5 Ma) are interpreted as the age of mineralization and confirm an epigenetic origin for ore mineralization in the MFMD, likely a result of prolonged hydrothermal circulation of basinal brines through potential source rocks. Most FHe ages scatter around the Eocene Epoch (55.4 ± 3.9 to 33.1 ± 1.7 Ma), recording an important cooling event after heating by regional magmatism in an extensional tectonic regime. Cooling of the heated fluorites, as a result of thermal relaxation in response to geothermal gradient re-equilibration after the end of magmatism, or exhumation cooling during extensional tectonics characterized by lower amount of erosion are most probably the causes of the recorded Eocene FHe cooling ages. Oligocene–Miocene FHe ages (i.e. 27.6 ± 1.4 to 19.5 ± 1.1 Ma) are related to the accelerated uplift of the whole Alborz Mountains, possibly as a result of the initial collision between the Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates further to the south.