The Shuangjianzishan vein-type Ag-Pb-Zn deposit in the southern Great Xing’an Range (GXR), NE China, is hosted in the slate of the Lower Permian Dashizhai Formation intruded by granite porphyry. In this paper, U–Pb zircon ages and bulk-rock and isotope (Sr, Nd, Pb and Hf) compositions are reported to investigate the derivation, evolution and geodynamic setting of this granite porphyry. It is closely associated with Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the southern GXR and contains important geological information relating to regional tectonic evolution. Laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) zircon U–Pb dating yields an emplacement age of 131 ± 1 Ma for the granite porphyry. Bulk-rock analyses show that the Shuangjianzishan granite porphyry is characterized by high Si, Na and K contents but low Mg and Fe contents, and that the enrichment of Zr, Y and Ga suggests an A-type granite affinity. Most of the studied samples have relatively low 87Sr/86Sr values (0.70549–0.70558), with positive ϵNd(t) (0.71–0.88) and ϵHf(t) (4.9–6.9) values. The Sr–Nd isotope modelling results, in combination with the young TDM2 ages of Nd and Hf (850–864 and 668–778 Ma, respectively), reveal that the Shuangjianzishan granite porphyry may be derived from the melting of mantle-derived juvenile component, with minor lower crustal components; this finding is also supported by Pb isotopic compositions. Considering the widespread presence of granitoids with coeval volcanic rocks and regional geology data, we propose that the Shuangjianzishan granite porphyry formed in a post-orogenic extensional environment related to the upwelling of asthenospheric mantle following the closure of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean.