Abstract

The Soltanieh Formation in the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran is not only a key lithostratigraphic unit for reconstruction of the Iranian geological history, but also a globally outstanding succession to reveal variations in seawater composition across the Precambrian–Cambrian (PC–C) transition. Mineralogical and geochemical data from a continuous stratigraphic record of Lower and Upper Shale members of the Soltanieh Formation are used to define their provenance, tectonic setting as well as geochemical variations during the PC–C transition. The Soltanieh mudrocks are composed of quartz and plagioclase, with minor constituents of illite, chlorite and montmorillonite. The chemical index of alteration, A-CN-K (Al2O3 – CaO + Na2O – K2O) relations, index of compositional variability, and Th/Sc versus Zr/Sc ratios indicate low chemical weathering in source areas, compositionally immature and first-cycle sediments. Immobile trace-element ratios and discrimination diagrams, chondrite-normalized rare Earth element (REE) patterns and negative Eu anomaly, along with low total REE abundances and negligible Ce anomalies, demonstrate that the Soltanieh Formation was mainly derived from proximal felsic-intermediate Cadomian magmatic arc sources and deposited in a continental-arc-related basin on the proto-Tethyan active margin of Gondwana. The palaeoredox indicators exhibit a remarkable change in environmental condition from a suboxic to an oxic state across the PC–C transition from the Kahar Formation to the Upper Shale Member of the Soltanieh Formation. Moreover, a significant upwards increase of P, Ba, and Ca is likely associated with enhanced fluxes of nutrient elements during the PC–C transition, coeval with the building of collisional mountain belts during the amalgamation of Gondwana.

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