Mica pegmatites from the Bihar Mica Belt contain three distinct generations of tourmaline. The major-element composition, substitution vectors and trajectories within each group are different, which indicates that the three types of tourmalines are not a part of one evolutionary series. Rather, the differences in their chemistries as well their mutual microtextural relations, can be best explained by growth of tourmaline from pegmatitic melts followed by episodic re-equilibration during discrete geological events. The euhedral, coarse-grained brown type I tourmaline cores have relatively high Ca, Mg (XMgc. 0.37) and Al with correlated variation in Sr, Sc, Ti, Zr, Y, Cr, Pb and Rare Earth elements (REEs). They are inferred to have crystallized from pegmatitic melts. Monazites included within these tourmalines give chemical ages of 1290−1242 Ma interpreted to date the crystallization of the pegmatitic tourmaline. The bluish type II and greyish type III tourmalines with low Ca and Mg contents (XMg = 0.16−0.27) and high Zn, Sn, Nb, Ta and Na, formed by pseudomorphic partial replacement of the pegmatitic tourmaline via fluid-mediated coupled dissolution–reprecipitation, are ascribed to a hydrothermal origin. The ages obtained from monazites included in these tourmalines indicate two alteration events at c. 1100 Ma and c. 950 Ma. The correlated variation of Ca, Mg and Fe and the trace elements Sr, Sn, Sc, Zn and REE within the tourmalines indicates that the trace-element concentrations of tourmaline are controlled not only by the fluid chemistry but also by coupled substitutions with major-element ions.

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