The Neoproterozoic Hedmark Basin in the Caledonides of South Norway was formed at the western margin of the continent Baltica by rifting 750–600 Ma ago. The margin was destroyed in the Caledonian Orogeny and sedimentary basins translated eastwards. This study uses provenance analysis to map the crustal architecture of the pre-Caledonian SW Baltican margin. Conglomerate clasts and sandstones were sampled from submarine fan, alluvial fan and terrestrial glacigenic sedimentary rocks. Samples were analysed for U–Pb isotopes and clast samples additionally for Lu–Hf isotopes. The clasts are mainly granites c. 960 Ma and 1680 Ma old, coeval with the Sveconorwegian Orogeny and formation of the Palaeoproterozoic Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB). Mesoproterozoic (Sveconorwegian) ages are abundant in the western part of the basin, whereas Palaeoproterozoic ages are common in the east. Lu–Hf isotopes support crustally contaminated source for all clasts linking them to Fennoscandia. Detrital zircon ages of the sandstones can be matched with those from the granitic clasts except for ages within the range 1200–1500 Ma. These ages are typically found in the present-day Telemark, SW Norway. The sandstones and conglomerate clasts in the western part of the Hedmark Basin were sourced from the Sveconorwegian domain in the present SW Norway or its continuation to the present-day NW. The conglomerate clasts in the eastern part of the Hedmark Basin were sourced mainly from the TIB domain or its northwesterly continuation. The Hedmark Basin was initiated within the boundary of two domains in the basement: the TIB and the Sveconorwegian domains.