Here we record the occurrence of a new species of the Herefordshire Lagerstätte ostracod genus Pauline from the Lower Silurian (upper Telychian) of North Greenland. Pauline nivisis sp. nov. was recovered from a limestone boulder (Pentamerus Bjerge Formation) collected south of Kap Schuchert, Washington Land. It is reasonable to transpose the palaeobiology known from the Herefordshire Pauline avibella – body, limbs including swimming antennae, lateral eyes, gills and alimentary system – into the carapace of the Greenland species, which represents the oldest cylindroleberidid myodocopid and almost the oldest known myodocope, and is the first record of a Herefordshire Lagerstätte genus from outside the Welsh Borderland locality. Morphological, sedimentological and faunal evidence suggest that the Greenland species was nektobenthic. This is compatible with the notion that ostracods (specifically myodocopids) did not invade the water column until later in the Silurian, in the Wenlock and Ludlow epochs. Pauline is an Early Silurian link between ‘Baltic-British’ and North Laurentian ostracod faunas, endorsing the idea that the UK and Greenland were in close geographical proximity, near a remnant Iapetus Ocean, during late Llandovery time.

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