The Fenestella Shale Formation of Jammu and Kashmir Himalaya comprises latest Viséan or Serpukhovian siliciclastic deposits formed along the southern margins of the Palaeotethys Ocean. A sequence of shallowing upward and deepening upward units indicates changes from shoreface to offshore and deeper shelf conditions, probably controlled by eustatic changes in an otherwise passive depositional system. Some of the finer-grained, shallow marine deposits have yielded fossil floras dominated by sub-arborescent lycopsids (Sublepidodendron, Lepidodendropsis) sphenophytes (Archaeocalamites) and pteridophylls (Nothorhacopteris, Triphyllopteris). The assemblage compares with other Gondwanan floras of this age that have been assigned to the Paraca floral realm, and are taken to indicate relatively warm climatic conditions that existed just prior to the onset of the Carboniferous–Permian ice-age.

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