Abstract

The Kamień Pomorski IG-1 borehole (Pomerania, NW Poland) yields a profile through the Triassic–Jurassic (T–J) transition in continental deposits. An integrated study of the sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy, palynology, biostratigraphy and geochemistry of these deposits has been carried out on the boundary interval, which represents a time of major environmental change. Two lithological units within the transitional section are distinguished: the Lower–Middle Rhaetian Wielichowo Beds of alluvial plain facies, which shows evidence of a semi-arid climate, and the Upper Rhaetian to Lower Hettangian Zagaje Formation, lying above a marked erosional sequence boundary, composed of mudstone-claystone and sandstone deposited in a fluvial-lacustrine environment. Carbon isotope values obtained from palynomaceral separates, and thus reflecting isotopic changes in atmospheric CO2, show significant fluctuations through the Rhaetian; the most conspicuous negative δ13Corg excursion is correlated with the Rhaetian ‘initial’ excursion and shows two sub-peaks, pointing to short-term carbon-cycle disturbances of lesser magnitude. Above the ‘initial’ negative excursion, there is a positive excursion followed again by more negative values, representing subordinate fluctuation within a positive excursion and is correlated with the T–J boundary. Seventy-two miospore taxa have been determined from the studied T–J transitional section. Two major palynological assemblages have been distinguished: the lower one, typically Rhaetian, named the Cingulizonates rhaeticusLimbosporites lundblandii association, which corresponds to the RhaetipollisRicciisporites (= RhaetipollisLimbosporites) Zone; and the upper one, typically Hettangian, named the Conbaculatisporites mesozoicus– Dictyophyllidites mortoniCerebropollenites thiergartii association (with the age-diagnostic pollen C. thiergartii), which corresponds to the Pinuspollenites–Trachysporites (= Trachysporites–Heliosporites) Zone. The T–J palynofloral turnover occurred in a humid period and is more conspicuous then palynofloral changes observed in Greenland, the Tethyan domain or other parts of NE Europe. The osmium isotope system is studied herein for the first time from T–J continental deposits and shows marked disturbances similar to those measured in marine deposits and attributed to volcanic fallout. Carbon and osmium isotope correlation and coeval increase in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and darkening of miospores confirm that eruptions of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) contributed to the perturbances in climate and crisis in the terrestrial biosphere. A series of periodical atmospheric loading by CO2, CH4 or alternatively by SO2, sulphate aerosols and toxic compounds is inferred to have caused a series of rapid climatic reversals, directly influencing the ecosystem and causing the Triassic floral crisis. A floral turnover period commenced at the ‘initial’ δ13C excursion, with the onset of CAMP volcanism. Obtained values of initial 187Os/186Os between 2.905 and 4.873 and very low iridium content (about 5 ppt) lend no support to a role for an extraterrestrial impact at the T–J boundary event. The position of the ‘initial’ negative carbon isotope excursion about 12 m below the T–J boundary, position of sequence boundaries (emergence surfaces) and other isotope excursions allow reliable correlation with marine profiles, including St Audrie's Bay (UK), Csövár (Hungary) and the GSSP profile at Kuhjoch (Austria).

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