We present and use seismic images to constrain possible scenarios for the evolution of the Middle Miocene Gachsaran Formation in the Central Iranian Zagros during the Neogene folding. This evaporitic sequence plays an important role in sealing the Oligocene–Miocene Asmari reservoirs in the Dezful Embayment and offshore regions. It was deposited in the flexural basin south of the Mountain Front Fault, during the progressive southwestward propagation of the Zagros folding. Its thickness changes very rapidly from several hundred to more than 4000 m. This thickness variation is related to faulting, folding and flow. Seismic and subsurface data show that the Gachsaran evaporite sequence is a major disharmonic level in the Dezful Embayment and shallow, molassic synclines often overlie anticlinal axes at depth. The lithological composition of the Gachsaran Formation is mainly a combination of salt, shale and anhydrite, which have a high interval velocity contrast. Anomalous velocity behaviours of these sedimentary units after deformation affect the seismic quality of the surrounding area, especially the southern flank of the main anticline structures.