Abstract

The morphology and structure of the 1999 lava flows at Mount Cameroon volcano are documented and discussed in relation to local and source dynamics. Structures are analysed qualitatively and more detailed arguments are developed on the processes of levee formation and systematic links between flow dynamics and levee–channel interface geometry. The flows have clear channels bordered by four main types of levees: initial, accretionary, rubble and overflow levees. Thermally immature pahoehoe lava units with overflow drapes define the proximal zone, whereas rubble and accretionary levees are common in the distal region bordering thermally mature aa clinker or blocky aa flow channels. Pressure ridges, squeeze-ups and pahoehoe ropes are the prevalent compressive structures. Standlines displayed on clinkery breccias are interpreted to represent levee–channel interactions in response to changing flow levels. These data complement previous knowledge on lava flow morphology, thus far dominated by Etnean and Hawaiian examples.

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