We report the occurrence and characteristics of diopsidite dykes and veins from the Palghat-Cauvery Suture Zone (PCSZ) marking the boundary between the Archaean Dharwar craton to the north and the Proterozoic Madurai Block to the south, which is considered as a trace of the Cambrian Gondwana suture zone in southern India. The diopsidites are composed predominantly of coarse crystals of diopside [Mg no. (100 Mg/(Mg+Fetot)) up to 89] surrounded by retrograde calcic amphibole, plagioclase and phlogopite with accessory titanite and calcite. The major, trace and rare earth element characteristics of the diopside crystals suggest their formation in a subduction zone setting. We correlate the petrogenesis of the diopsidites with the tectonics associated with the subduction and closure of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Ocean prior to the final collisional assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent in Cambrian.