Trilobites from the upper unit of the Lower Cambrian Pusa Formation (south-central Spain) substantially antedate other Iberian trilobites, according to widely published correlation schemes, and arguably would be among the earliest trilobites globally. These trilobites, previously only briefly mentioned in texts, are here described and illustrated, and their biochronological context examined. The Pusa Formation trilobites are treated in open nomenclature but with suggested affinity to the genus Abadiella. They are associated with small shelly fossils, including Pelagiella sp., chancellorid spicules and Cupitheca sp., and unidentfied archaeocyathans. Trace fossils from the upper unit of the Pusa Formation, down-section of the trilobites, include Dactyloidites isp. and Rusophycus isp., the latter representing the lowest occurrence of this ichnogenus in the region. This biostratigraphical context demonstrates that the Pusa Formation trilobites are substantially younger than had traditionally been thought. In terms of Iberian regional stages they are Ovetian, not Corduban as previously thought. As a consequence of the data presented here, the definitions of Iberian Lower Cambrian regional stages are discussed and a substantially revised correlation between key Lower Cambrian strata of the Central Iberian and Ossa Morena zones is proposed.

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