Thin-section observations and electron probe analyses, and trace element data are reported from a new mantle xenolith hosted in Miocene alkali basalt from the western flank of Simien shield volcano, Ethiopia. The spinel lherzolite enclaves contain variable proportions of olivine, orthopyroxene, green clinopyroxene and brown spinel, and have undergone deformation and partial recrystallization. They represent unmetasomatized, fertile xenoliths which were subjected to a late-stage melt–rock reaction. Trace element contents of clinopyroxene crystals are extremely low and quite different from those of the other xenoliths within the East African Rift System.

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