Middle Miocene volcanic activity in the Afyon volcanic province (eastern part of Western Anatolia) is characterized by multistage potassic and ultrapotassic alkaline volcanic successions. The volcanism is generally related to the northward subduction of the African plate beneath the Eurasian Plate. In Afyon, the Middle Miocene volcanic products consist of melilite leucitite, tephriphonolite, trachyte, basaltic–trachyandesite, phonolite, phonotephrite, tephriphonolite and lamproite rocks. Near-surface emplacement and relatively quiescent subaerial eruptions of lamproitic magma produced different emplacement forms such as dome/plug-shaped bodies and lava flows, showing variation in volume and texture. The mineralogical constituents of the lamproites are sanidine, olivine (77 < Mg no. < 81), phlogopite (74 < Mg no. < 78), K-richterite, clinopyroxene (74 < Mg no. < 78), with accessory apatite, calcite and opaque minerals. Afyon lamproites resemble Mediterranean-type Si-rich lamproites. Their compositional range is 50–52 wt % SiO2, 4–8 wt % MgO, and they display a typical lamproitic affinity. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns exhibit enrichment in LREE relative to HREE ((La/Yb)CN = 15.3–17.0). They show extreme enrichment in LILE relative to primitive mantle values and troughs of Nb and Ti. The lamproites give a range of high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and low 143Nd/144Nd ratios. The geochemical and isotopic characteristics suggest that lamproitic magma is derived from highly metasomatized mantle. The enrichment history may include metasomatic events related to subduction, as in other active orogenic areas of the Mediterranean.