The Neoproterozoic was a time of profound biological and geological change. After a long time of very modest changes in the flora and fauna, the Ediacaran period finally brought forward the first diverse microflora, the first diverse macrophytes, as well as the first diverse macroscopic organisms, some of which likely are animals. There were significant palaeogeographic changes, at least two, or probably three, pronounced levels of widely recorded glaciations, and extensive fluctuations in δ13 C. Much thought has recently been directed at understanding if, and how, several, or most, of these events are related.

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