Extensive continental collision-related volcanism occurred in Turkey during Neogene–Quaternary times. In central Anatolia, calc-alkaline to alkaline volcanism began in the Middle–Late Miocene. Here we report trace elemental and isotopic data from Quaternary age samples from central and eastern Anatolia. Most mafic lavas from central Anatolia are basalt and basaltic andesite, with lesser amounts of basaltic trachyandesite and andesite. All magma types exhibit enrichment in LILE (Sr, Rb, Ba and Pb) relative to HFSE (Nb, Ta). Trace element patterns are characteristic of continental margin volcanism with high Ba/Nb and Th/Nb ratios. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios of central Anatolian lavas range between 0.704105–0.705619 and 0.512604–0.512849, respectively. The Quaternary alkaline volcanism of eastern Anatolia has been closely linked to the collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Karacadag and Tendürek volcanic rocks are represented by alkali basalts and basaltic trachyandesites, respectively. As expected from their alkaline nature, they contain high abundances of LIL elements, but Tendürek lavas also show depletion in Nb and Ta, indicating the role of crustal contamination in the evolution of these magmas. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of the Karacadağ and Tendürek lavas range from 0.703512 to 0.704466; 0.512742 to 0.512883 and 0.705743 to 0.705889 and 0.512676, respectively. Petrogenetic modelling has been used to constrain source characteristics for the central and eastern Anatolian volcanic rocks. Trace element ratio plots and REE modelling indicate that the central Anatolian volcanism was generated from a lithospheric mantle source that recorded the previous subduction events between Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates during Eocene to Miocene times. In contrast, The Karacadağ alkaline basaltic volcanism on the Arabian foreland is derived from an OIB-like mantle source with limited crustal contamination. Tendürek volcanism, located on thickened crust, north of the Bitlis thrust zone, derived from the lithospheric mantle via small degrees (1.5 %) of partial melting.