Abstract

The Andaman Islands, the central part of Burma–Java subduction complex, expose tectonostratigraphic units of an accretionary prism in an outer-arc setting and turbidites of a forearc setting. A number of N–S-trending dismembered ophiolite slices of Cretaceous age, occurring at different structural levels with Eocene trench-slope sediments, were uplifted and emplaced by a series of E-dipping thrusts. Subsequently, N–S normal and E–W strike-slip faults resulted in the development of a forearc basin with deposition of Oligocene and Mio-Pliocene sediments. Metapelites and metabasics of greenschist to amphibolite grade occur in a melange zone of ophiolites. The Eocene Mithakhari Group represents pelagic trench sediments and coarser clastics derived from ophiolites. Evidence of frequent facies changes, predominance of mass flow deposits, syn-sedimentary basinal disturbance and wide palaeogeographic variation indicate deposition of Eocene sediments in isolated basins of an immature trench-slope setting. Deposition of the Oligocene Andaman Flysch Group in a forearc setting is indicated by the large-scale persistence of beds, lack of small-scale lithological variation, bimodal provenance, less deformation, a well-defined submarine fan sequence and development predominantly on the eastern part of the outer arc. The Mio-Pliocene Archipelago Group includes alternations of siliciclastic turbidites and subaqueous pyroclastic flow deposits in the lower part and carbonate turbidites in the upper part, suggesting its deposition in the shallower forearc compared to the siliciclastic Oligocene sediments.

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