Abundant arthropod trackways, assigned to Diplichnites gouldi, are described from the Lower Old Red Sandstone (Early Devonian; Lochkovian) of Pant-y-Maes quarry, Brecon Beacons, South Wales. The trackways are preserved on bedding planes of finely laminated planar and rippled siltstones. The sedimentology of the succession indicates that these units represent bar top and marginal deposits in a braided fluvial setting. Two trackway types are recognized (Type A and B); comparisons with contemporaneous myriapodous producers favour kampecarid and eoarthropleurid myriapods, respectively. Functional analysis of the trackways indicates that the producers were not using the most efficient, stable, walking techniques, but instead utilized in-phase ‘swimming stroke’-like gaits. Together with their occurrence on rippled surfaces, and lateral displacement of some trackways (attributed to currents), this indicates that they were produced sub-aqueously.