"The 'beach-beds' at Castleton, Derbyshire, are shown to be detrital deposits containing numerous water-worn and broken brachiopod shell fragments set in a matrix of finely comminuted shell and crinoid debris. They occur at the junction of the fore-reef and basin facies of the Carboniferous limestone. Previous interpretations of the 'beach-beds' as cliff-foot screes or as beds lying above an unconformity are not supported, and it would appear that they are composed largely of debris transported down a submarine channel (the approximate position of which is now the dry valley of the Winnats) rather than in shallow water on a sea-beach, being deposited at the foot of the channel contemporaneously with the adjacent fore-reef beds."

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