Lithological mapping plays a vital role in acquiring a comprehensive understanding of subsurface rocks and geological structures. Traditional lithological mapping relies heavily on manual field surveys, with the accuracy of the mapping greatly constrained by the expertise of mappers, and thus this process is commonly slow and costly. In the present study, the graph convolutional network (GCN) method was proposed for efficient and automatic lithological mapping, using various geological survey data (e.g., geochemical and geophysical data). The GCN is not limited by the spatial distribution of sampling data, and hence it can be directly applied to the integrated resampling data that do not adhere to the regular spatial distribution patterns of Euclidean space. To evaluate the potential application of the GCN method in lithological classification and mapping, a case study was conducted in the Maqin region (China). Geochemical and geophysical data were utilized as the basis for lithological classification, as they can provide valuable information on geochemical compositions and physical properties of geological bodies, respectively. The study process was primarily divided into three parts. First, basic pre-processing was conducted on the geochemical data and the geophysical data, including centered log-ratio (clr) transformation and resampling. Subsequently, the resampled points were divided into training and testing sets in the proportion of 5.5:1. In the training set, 20% of the points are randomly selected as the validation set. Ultimately, using each resampled point as a node and the integrated geochemical and geophysical data as features, a GCN model and an undirected graph were constructed based on an adjacency distance of one kilometer. The graph was employed by the constructed GCN model for lithological classification. The results reveal that the majority of lithological units can be accurately classified with an overall accuracy of 86%, indicating that the GCN model exhibits good applicability in lithological classification.

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