K-feldspar–quartz vein-type Au deposits, represented by the Hadamengou super-large Au deposit, are widely developed in the Archean high-grade metamorphic terrane in the western segment of the northern margin of the North China Craton. However, the formation processes of these Au deposits have long been debated, and their genetic relationship with magmatic activity remains unclear. In this study, by examining the geological and geochemical characteristics of the Hadamengou Au deposit and several related intrusions, we find that the Au–(Mo) mineralization system may be related to Indosinian alkaline magmatic activity. The Dongshadegai and Xishadegai intrusions, which are related to the formation of the Hadamengou Au deposit, formed in an Indosinian extensional tectonic environment, and both are characterized by high silica and alkaline contents and strong oxidizing properties, indicating that the parent magmas of these intrusions were capable of dissolving and transporting metallic elements during magma formation and evolution. The Indosinian Hadamengou Au deposit contains minerals such as magnetite and barite, and the H, O, S and Pb isotopic characteristics of this deposit indicate that the ore-forming fluids originated from magmatic–hydrothermal fluids and had oxidizing properties. These observations suggest the presence of an oxidized intrusion-related Au–(Mo) mineralization system in the studied metamorphic terrane.