This study focuses on uranium (U) in surface and groundwaters in Boreal Europe (Sweden, Finland, Russia). Data from recently completed regional hydrogeochemical surveys and from site-specific studies were combined, in order to enhance the current understanding of U behaviour in the catchments and water bodies of these northerly latitudes. Over Precambrian areas (dominated by igneous and metamorphic rocks) the aqueous U concentrations in general increased in a downward direction, i.e. from stream waters to overburden groundwaters to bedrock groundwaters, and they were correlated with the U abundance in the surrounding overburden (mainly glacial till). Over Phanerozoic areas (dominated by terrigene deposits containing or composed of limestone) the aqueous U concentrations were, in contrast, unrelated to overburden U concentrations and strongly correlated with dissolved Ca and HCO3− concentrations. There is thus an overall geochemical and hydrochemical control, respectively, related to the underlying lithology. At geologically specific and local sites there is a range of correlations and control mechanisms of aqueous U. From acid sulphate soils, occurring abundantly on coastal plains, runoff below pH 4.0 is enriched in U (up to 55 μg/l) most likely due to oxidation of U(IV) minerals followed by subsequent limited sorption of U(VI) in the acidic environment. In a studied black shale setting, characterized by high U concentrations (up to >200 ppm), U levels increased in groundwater (up to 200 μg/l) and surface water (up to 80 μg/l) as the conditions changed from reducing to oxidizing. In an unmineralized granitic setting, proposed as a repository for spent nuclear fuel, elevated U concentrations in surface waters (up to 25 μg/l) reflect a regional stream-hydrochemical anomaly and in bedrock groundwaters (up to >100 μg/l), most likely mobilization of uranyl from U-rich fracture coatings. In the Baltic Sea, which has unique brackish water, the ratio of U to Cl− is similar to that in the oceans but contrasting near-coastal U trends exist, characterized by an inverse relationship between U and Cl− concentrations. These coastal-water anomalies are most likely caused by high U levels in inflowing streams, and possibly to some extent submarine discharge of U-enriched waters.