Mining industries and metal refineries represent an important economic sector for many countries. However, environmental issues are gaining interest and sustainable development requires that metal industries minimize threats for air, water and soil quality. For years, smelters represented the dominant sources of metals and SO2 released to the environment in Canada. Recently, the smelter operators have lowered their atmospheric releases in the environment by up to 90% depending on the chemical species of interest and on the type of smelting (e.g. Cominco Ltd 2000; Pollution Probe 2003,). The pertinence of studying releases from smelters is underscored by...

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