Brian A. Dempsey, Byong-Hun Jeon; Characteristics of sludge produced from passive treatment of mine drainage. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis ; 1 (1): 89–94. doi: https://doi.org/10.1144/geochem.1.1.89
In the 1994 paper by Brown, Skousen & Renton it was argued that settleability and wet-packing density were the most important physical characteristics of sludge from treatment of mine drainage. These characteristics plus zeta-potential, intrinsic viscosity, specific resistance to filtration, and coefficient of compressibility were determined for several sludge samples from passive treatment sites and for several sludge samples that were prepared in the laboratory. Sludge from passive systems had high packing density, low intrinsic viscosity, low specific resistance to filtration and low coefficient of compressibility compared to sludge that was produced after addition of NaOH.