Electron-microprobe analysis and X-ray micro-diffraction show the presence of tungsten-bearing rutile in the Jinling, Jiaojia, Linglong and Hexi gold deposits in the Jiaodong gold province. The tungsten-bearing rutile appears both in gold-bearing quartz veins and alteration fracture zones as columnar, tabular and irregular crystals with grain sizes ranging from 2 to 300 μm in association with sericite, quartz, hematite and electrum. The contents of W, coupled with Fe, Nb and V, are heterogeneously distributed in rutile with maximum contents of W 8.61 wt%, Fe 3.35 wt%, V 3.08 wt%, Nb 5.56 wt%. Tungsten content shows a prominent positive correlation with Fe and V and the coupled substitutions of W, Fe, V and Nb for Ti abide mainly by 2(Fe, V)3+ + W6+ = 3Ti4+ and Fe3+ + Nb5+ = 2Ti4+, indicating that Fe and V are mainly trivalent, and Nb mainly pentavalent. X-ray micro-diffraction and Raman spectra show that the tungsten-bearing phase has the tetragonal rutile structure in space group P42/mnm with the unit-cell parameters a = 4.595(1) Å, c = 2.9609(2) Å for a crystal with 3.20 wt% W on average. The textural relationship of tungsten-bearing rutile in the ores indicates that it was formed in the hydrothermal stage in a relatively oxidizing and alkaline environment.
Tungsten-bearing rutile from the Jiaodong gold province, Shandong, China and its implication for gold mineralization
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Bin Yang, Yin-he Xiang, Xiangping Gu; Tungsten-bearing rutile from the Jiaodong gold province, Shandong, China and its implication for gold mineralization. European Journal of Mineralogy doi: https://doi.org/10.1127/ejm/2018/0030-2757
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