A non-stoichiometric frondelite from the Hagendorf Süd pegmatite, Bavaria, has been studied using chemical and thermal analyses, electron diffraction (ED), Mössbauer spectroscopy and synchrotron single-crystal structure analysis. The structural formula, with occupancies of the M1, M2 and M3 sites given in sequence, is (Fe3+)(Mn2+0.67Zn0.20Fe2+0.08Fe3+0.70)Σ1.65(Fe3+2.30)(PO4)3(OH)4.9(H2O)0.1. The non-stoichiometric frondelite contains an excess of 0.3 atoms in the M3 site and a deficiency of 0.35 atoms in the M2 site. The ED patterns show rows of reflections that violate the reflection extinctions for Bbmm, and which are due to a local ordering of Fe3+ and vacancies in the M3 sites. Based on the ED results, a model was developed in space group Pnma, in which (100) planes containing corner-shared octahedral dimers of M3 atoms are ordered on a scale of ∼6 nm. The Pnma model was refined successfully against the synchrotron single-crystal data. Non-stoichiometry can be explained within the Pnma local-order model by distortions at the M3 sites in non-stoichiometric regions, where local, barbosalite-like, trimeric chains of face-sharing octahedra are formed.
Non-stoichiometry and local order in minerals with the rockbridgeite structure
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Ian Edward Grey, Tim Williams, Anthony R. Kampf, John D. Cashion, Yesim Gozukara, Colin M. MacRae, Erich Keck; Non-stoichiometry and local order in minerals with the rockbridgeite structure. European Journal of Mineralogy ; 30 (4): 773–783. doi: https://doi.org/10.1127/ejm/2018/0030-2734
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