A combined study of detailed petrographic observation, mineral chemistry analysis and phase equilibrium modeling indicates that the high-temperature eclogites from the Dabie orogen, central China, experienced two episodes of anatexis: the first is phengite dehydration melting during the exhumation of deeply subducted slices, and the second is heating melting related to the post-orogenic collapse. Petrographic evidence and clues of the anatectic events include biotite + plagioclase + garnet ± amphibole intergrowth in matrix and biotite + plagioclase intergrowth within amphibole porphyroblast. Pressure–temperature (P–T) pseudosection and modal variation diagram indicate that the biotite + plagioclase + garnet ± amphibole in matrix was formed by the reactions phengite + clinopyroxene + quartz = melt + sanidine + garnet + plagioclase and later melt + sanidine + garnet = biotite + plagioclase, while the biotite + plagioclase intergrowths within poikiloblastic amphibole were formed by the reaction amphibole + muscovite + epidote = biotite + plagioclase + melt. In addition, the combination of petrological observations and P–T estimates suggests that the first melting event occurred at the late Triassic, while the second is related to the early Cretaceous mountain-root removal and subsequent asthenospheric upwelling and heat input. As the P–T paths of high-temperature/ultrahigh-pressure rocks have high probabilities to cross-cut phengite-melting curves, phengite melting during decompression may be a common process in these rocks. Moreover, the coexistence of multiple episodes of anatexis in a single tectonic slice suggests caution when identifying and dating partial melting in high-temperature/(ultra)high-pressure rocks.

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