Neutron scattering and neutron imaging are powerful techniques for studying the structure of objects without damage, which is an essential prerequisite for investigations in Cultural Heritage domain, particularly in Archaeology. The deep penetration of neutrons in most materials allows for the study of relatively large objects. The contrast between similar materials, like metals in alloys, or that due to the presence of hydrogen atoms gives information about the internal structure of objects that have been modified or repaired in the past. Imaging and tomography give a 3-dimensional view of the whole object, permitting discrimination between different parts of the object, voids, water content and large pores. Neutron scattering also provides information about elemental composition as well as about tiny pores and quantitative evaluations of the total area of internal surfaces or water content. The paper is an introduction to these techniques, which are easily accessible at neutron facilities.

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