Abstract

Mafic microgranular enclaves produced by co-mingling between minette and syenite magmas are found in the Piquiri Syenite, southern Brazil. These enclaves were crystallized under upper mantle conditions. K-clinopyroxene and pyrope are among the early-crystallized phases, suggesting an initial pressure around 5GPa. The mineralogy of minettes comprises phenocrysts of magnesium biotite and diopside, occasionally apatite, in a groundmass formed by these minerals plus alkali feldspar. Two types of apatites are observed: (i) euhedral grains, as inclusions or groundmass constituents, and (ii) aciculate crystals formed during undercooling of mafic magma. Substitutional schemes suggested for these apatites are Si ⇆ P in the tetrahedral site, and Sr and LREE replacing Ca. La, Ce, Nd, and Sr concentrations reveal that these elements are extremely enriched in apatite. Partition coefficients between early-crystallized apatites and estimated melt compositions are DLa (11.8–30.6), DCe (16.1–33), DNd (12–31) and DSr (5.1–8.2). Apatite concentrates the LREE up to 200 times compared to clinopyroxene, even higher values were determined for ap/mica partitioning. The ap/cpx and ap/mica partition coefficients for undercooled minerals are close to the values determined for the near-liquidus phases, which indicates constant behavior of LREE and Sr between apatite-clinopyroxene-mica parageneses and minette liquids. Furthermore, these partitioning data preclude any chemical diffusion of these elements between minette and syenite magmas during co-mingling.

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