We review the current state of the field of neutron scattering as applied to studies of mineral behaviour. Neutron scattering is a particularly versatile tool because it is able to measure both structure (diffraction) and dynamics (spectroscopy) of materials at an atomic level, and because it is able to measure both coherent and incoherent scattering processes. As a result, there is a wide range of phenomena that can be studied using neutron scattering. The versatility of the tool is shown to arise within a general theoretical framework. Applications of neutron scattering in the Earth and Mineral Sciences are described.