The Fuling shale gas field is located in a mountainous area, with well-developed underground rivers and karst caves. It also has a highly concentrated population, so the shale gas development in this field is faced with environmental protection problems. Combined with the characteristics of surface natural environment in the Fuling shale gas field and the features of shale gas development engineering, the main environmental issues encountered in the development of the Fuling shale gas field were analyzed. Studies on intensive land use, water conservation and protection, harmless use and disposal of oil-based drill cuttings, recycling of wastewater from drilling and fracturing, and green environment management mode for shale gas development were conducted, and the green development technology system suitable for the Fuling shale gas field was established. Field applications showed that, after applying the green development technology, the land occupation was reduced by 62.l%, the recycling rate of drilling and fracturing wastewater was up to 100%, the oil content of treated oil-based drill cuttings was less than 0.3%, and carbon dioxide emission was reduced by 64.47 × 104 t (1.41 × 109 lb). Thus, the goal of zero contamination was realized during shale gas field development. Research showed that the green and environmental protection development technology for the Fuling shale gas field has served as a valuable demonstration in the environmental protection in large-scale development of shale gas fields in China.