To better understand controls on the origin and evolution of brackish groundwater, the hydrogeochemistry of brackish groundwaters was studied within the Triassic Dockum Group across the Midland Basin in Texas. The suitability of Dockum Aquifer water for use in hydraulic fracturing fluid was examined because the area overlies the largest and most productive tight oil province in the United States. Groundwater generally flows southward and eastward across the basin. Transmissivities indicate that water yield from the Dockum Aquifer is mixed. Higher salinity (up to ∼100 g/L), group I water is found mainly in the center and western parts of the basin; chemistry of these meteoric waters is controlled by water–rock interaction with salinity increasing along its flow path via dissolution of halite and anhydrite, followed by salinity-enhanced carbonate dissolution and/or cation release from clays. Along the down-gradient basin margins, lower salinity (<7.5 g/L), group II waters of various ion compositions are more commonly found. Group II waters are also meteoric but from local recharge including downward flow from the Edwards–Trinity or other aquifers. Despite having lower salinity, the water in the down-gradient southern and eastern margins of the basin can exceed acceptable SO4 limits for cross-linked gel fluids. Generally, the majority of the water in the basin is suitable for use with slick-water hydraulic fracturing. Findings from this research provide important information on the complex controls on the chemistry of brackish groundwater and their potential beneficial uses in the oil and gas industry.