The reservoir sedimentology and depositional environment of the Lower Cretaceous Alam El Bueib Formation in the Betty-1 well, Shoushan Basin, were investigated by studying lithofacies, petrography, and calcareous nannofossils. The sedimentary lithofacies indicate a fluvial to shallow-marine depositional environment.
We have lithologically identified and described five lithofacies assemblages (massive-sandstone facies; cherty massive-sandstone facies; argillaceous-sandstone facies; heterolithic, laminated sandstone/shale facies; and sandy/silty–shale facies); we have petrographically identified and described seven microfacies (laminated claystone and siltstone; ferruginous quartz–arenite; feldspathic ferruginous quartz–wacke; quartz–arenite; anhydritic quartz–arenite; biomicrite; and sandy-limestone microfacies). Calcareous nannofossils were used to determine the age of the investigated deposits. The calcareous-nannofossil species led to the recognition of two nannofossil zones of the Early Cretaceous (Nannoconus bermudezi zone of the Hauterivian and Nannoconus colomi zone of the Barremian).
The studied sandstone reservoirs can be classified as compositionally immature feldspathic arenite and wacke. The main diagenetic minerals of the sandstones include authigenetic clay minerals, calcite cement, quartz overgrowth, and later ferroan carbonate. Wide porosity variations in sandstones correlate with an abundance of grain-coating clays and consequent inhibition of quartz cementation. Secondary porosity has been created mainly by feldspar, rock-fragment dissolution, and clay-matrix dissolution.