This article reviews recent efforts by federal, state, and international organizations to address the impact of the unprecedented growth in population and industry along the border between Texas and Mexico on the water resources and water quality of the region. The border region depends heavily on the Rio Grande River both for water for sustenance and industrial use, as well as for wastewater disposal. The Texas Water Development Board, acting under the Texas Legislature, directed the development of regional water plans that were published early in 2001. Three regions were identified in the plans to include the Texas–Mexico border, namely, the Far West region, the Plateau region, and the Rio Grande region. Although these plans provide the basis for further work on managing water resources in the region, they do not address the adequacy of water quality and quality assurance in the region. Because water from the Rio Grande is being reused at numerous locations along the border, water-quality investigations must be given a high priority now.