The one-dimensional (1-D) approach is still the dominant method to incorporate site effects in engineering applications. To bridge the 1-D to multidimensional site response analysis, we develop quantitative criteria and a reproducible method to identify KiK-net sites with significant deviations from 1-D behavior. We found that 158 out of 354 show two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) effects, extending the resonance toward shorter periods at which 2-D or 3-D site effects exceed those of the classic 1-D configurations and imposing an additional amplification to that caused by the impedance contrast alone. Such 2-D and 3-D effects go along with a large within-station ground motion variability. Remarkably, these effects are found to be more pronounced for small impedance contrasts. While it is hardly possible to identify common features in ground motion behavior for stations with similar topography typologies, it is not over-conservative to apply a safety factor to account for 2-D and 3-D site effects in ground motion modeling.

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