This report examines the state-of-the-art of in situ methods of estimating liquefaction potential in sands. In situ methods are especially important since “undisturbed” samples of loose sand for laboratory testing are virtually unobtainable. Various penetration test methods are examined, such as the SPT, DMT, and the CPT and variants. These methods are completely empirical in nature, and have worked well to date. The current state-of-practice is an SPT-based method. Intrusive, seismic-based tests are also examined: the cross-hole, down-hole tests, and down-hole logger. The seismic velocity-based predictors have a stronger physical basis than the penetration test-based estimation methods, but need a larger database. A non-intrusive test, the Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves technique, seems especially suited for examining sites of large areal extent.

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