Russian foraminiferal research began in the late 19th century and has continued to the present. Micropaleontology was prominent at two main branches of Soviet research institutions, that in St. Petersburg, known as the Petersburgian (Leningrad) and in Moscow as the Russian foraminiferal school. These two collaborated in well-coordinated cooperative work all around the country. This combined school of foraminiferology included many accomplished scientists whose main achievements are summarized, including highlights of the leadership and the contributions of A. V. Fursenko, G. A. Dutkevich, D. M. Rauser-Chernousova, N. N. Subbotina, and A. Gerke. The sustained focus on evolutionary history and its significance for taxonomy resulted in the revision of higher-level taxonomy and new understanding of the phylogeny of the Foraminifera, as well as positive elaborations of the systematics, biostratigraphy and ecology of the Foraminifera.