This paper provides the first assessment of the paleoecology and biogeography of foraminiferal assemblages from the continuous Aalenian–lower Bajocian succession from the pelagic region of the Neotethys. Foraminiferal assemblages were extracted by glacial acetic acid from the Tűzkövesárok section B of Bakonycsernye (Hungary), which is well dated by ammonites and consists of Ammonitico Rosso type limestones. Palaeoenvironmental changes were evaluated based on microfacies studies, taxonomic and palaeoecological analyses (abundance, diversity, morphogroups, and ecozones) of the 49 benthic and one planktic taxa. The grazer-dominated foraminiferal assemblages indicated normal marine salinity and well-oxygenated conditions in a pelagic swell-graben environment below the photic zone. The majority of the foraminifera likely grazed on a biofilm or mat produced by microbes and/or fungi and also may have fed on marine snow. At the Aalenian–Bajocian transition, the decrease in abundance and diversity was linked with a sea-level fall event (JBj1). In the upper Bajocian, dissolution due to deepening resulted in the gradual and selective impoverishment of the fauna. In addition, two biomes, Boreal-Atlantic and Mediterranean, were distinguished within the area of the Boreal-Atlantic-Caucasian Province, based on the review of the coeval faunas.