Study of the 30 kyr record of benthic foraminiferal assemblages in a sediment core retrieved from the base of the oxygen-minimum zone off Goa (eastern Arabian Sea), led to the discovery of a new species, Bulimina arabiensis. It dominates the benthic foraminiferal assemblage in the fine size fraction (63–125 μm), with a maximum abundance of >60% during the last glacial period between 17.5–23 kyr BP. The morphological characteristics of this species suggest its preference for infaunal microhabitat and low-oxygen concentrations of bottom water. The down-core abundance pattern of B. arabiensis shows millennial-scale variation almost paralleling the organic-carbon-concentration (%Corg) sediment record. The abundance of B. arabiensis appears to be controlled by both paleoproductivity and bottom-oxygen conditions.