The “critical shear velocity” and “settling velocity” of foraminiferal shells are important parameters for determining hydrodynamic conditions during deposition of Nummulites banks. These can be estimated by determining the size, shape, and density of nummulitid shells examined in axial sections cut perpendicular to the bedding plane. Shell size and shape can be determined directly from the shell diameter and thickness, but density must be calculated indirectly from the thin section. Calculations using the half-tori method approximate shell densities by equalizing the chamber volume of each half whorl, based on the half whorl’s lumen area and its center of gravity. Results from this method yield the same lumen volumes produced empirically by micro-computed tomography. The derived hydrodynamic parameters help estimate the minimum flow velocities needed to entrain nummulitid tests and provide a potential tool to account for the nature of their accumulations.

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