This paper reviews some new data on distribution patterns of modern benthic foraminifera and related organisms from the Canadian Arctic, specifically the Beaufort Shelf and slope. The smaller sizes—45–63 μm as well as >63 μm—were examined, and it was discovered that many species had either been overlooked altogether or severely underrepresented in previous studies. Not surprisingly, the deep-sea forms in particular had been overlooked even though they are present in the shallow shelf sediments in significant numbers. Although the data show many of the same species as previous studies, improved techniques of sample processing greatly increased the numbers of specimens and species found, enhancing the spatial and faunal relationships. These new data change the known faunas and will allow a much more precise indication for paleoenvironmental studies than was previously available. However, the major focus of this paper is taxonomy and illustration of most of these species to update the taxonomy last done in the 1990’s. One new species is reported, Cyclogyra distincta Cole and Scott, and Komokiacea (excluding Rhizammina algaeformis Brady) are reported from the Arctic for the first time as well as a southern immigrant, Elphidiella hannai (Cushman and Grant), which appears to thrive in methane-rich environments in the Arctic.