Pioneering studies of foraminiferal ecology were carried out by Phleger in the 1950s and summarized in his landmark book (Phleger, 1960). He introduced the idea of taking samples of known area and volume, distinguishing live from dead by staining, and attempting to quantify the input of foraminiferal tests to the sediment. Since then advances in ecological understanding have come from improved sediment sampling techniques, the introduction of a spectrum of methods for differentiating live from dead, new technology for determining a wider range of environmental parameters and with ever greater precision, and the application of statistical techniques for...

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