The antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant effects of halloysite nanoclay, Cloisite 10A (C10A) and Cloisite 15A (C15A) organonanoclays were examined in this study. The antimicrobial action was assessed using the agar-well method and the disc diffusion method. The free radical-scavenging effects of the clays were determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. Halloysite showed antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. C10A was effective against both Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis and E. faecalis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa). Additionally, only C10A was found to have an antimicrobial effect on Candida glabrata of 18 mm amongst the tested clays. C15A showed an antimicrobial effect on S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. It was determined that the antifungal properties of organoclays were higher than those of halloysite. The most effective clay type was determined to be C10A. The positively charged inner surface of the halloysite nanoclay can provide a large area to which negatively charged free radicals can attach. The modified C15A used in this study has two long-chain alkyl groups attached, whereas the modified C10A has a single long-chain alkyl group and a benzyl group attached. It is proposed that the differences in these antimicrobial effects are due to the structures of the molecules. According to these results, organoclays as green source materials could be used as additives and coatings in food processing, biomedical devices, filters and paints due to their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

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