Tannic acid-stabilized silver nanoparticles were synthesized in situ on halloysite clay nanotubes. The synthesis strategy included simple steps of tannic acid adsorption on clay nanotubes and further particle formation from silver salt solution. Pristine halloysite nanotubes as well as amino-modified clays were used for silver stabilization in water or ethanol. The materials were tested for antibacterial performance using three different methods. All of the materials produced showed antimicrobial activity. The pristine halloysite-based material with ~5 nm particles produced using ethanol as the solvent and tannic acid as the reducing agent showed the greatest antibacterial activity against Serratia marcescens. The materials were tested in vivo on Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes to ensure their safety, and they showed no negative effects on nematode growth and life expectancy.